THE WAR GAME: FROM THE HOLODOMOR TO THE HOLOCAUST

The genocidal impact of the Holodomor on Ukrainians and Russians was not lost on Hitler alone. In fact, with the entire Nazi fascist organization operating under a specific Aryan racist agenda extermination excelled at mass killing and slaughter of Slavs, Jews and non-Aryan races.

The Ukrainians were doomed long in advance. The Holodomor was just a beginning of the end for what was soon to tear apart their ancient and beloved country. The numbers are terrifying and may seem incredibly unbelievable even to historians and researchers. For most Americans who enjoy the benefits of peaceful isolation while living in a country that was never occupied or invaded apart from perhaps the experience of the American Revolution some 300 years ago, – and the Genocide inflicted on the native Americans – , the death toll defies the imagination unless otherwise experienced.

Reader, please bear in mind that the total military loss in World War II for the USSR alone was 8,668,400 which includes Ukraine, Byelorussia, Russia, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Armenia, Georgia, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Tadjikistan and its other republics, according to General M. Moiseyev, Chief of General Staff, USSR Armed forces. Compare the figures and think again about history and the strategy of leaders: Ukraine lost 19 per cent of its population, while Great Britain lost 0.7 percent and the USA lost 0.2 percent. (Andrew Gregorovich, “Population Loss by Country WWII, citing “Voennoistoricheskiy zhurnal” , no. 3, March 1990 cited by Peter G. Tsouras, The Great Patriotic War, 240, A. Gregorovich, Forum Ukrainian Review No. 92, Spring 1995)

From May 1989 after Gorbachev opened the first session of the Congress of People’s Soviets, the Russian masses were beginning to speak openly about the mass-murder of the Holodomor that began with Lenin as the prelude of mass-killing under Stalin with the worst yet to come during the Second World War. George Orwell wrote, under the cloud of Katyn and the Nazi death camps, in 1944, “‘Atrocities’ had come to be looked on as synonymous with ‘lies’.” Before long the banned books of Solzhenitsyn become bestsellers available in bookshops and libraries. And this is the man who had to dodge GPU agents; then they called themselves NKVD, and after that KGB. And he had to dodge them all, sometimes finding them hiding in his attic, always tapping his phones, opening his mail, agents posing as helpful couriers to smuggle – no steal! – his manuscripts all when he is still considered “an enemy of the people” and all “active measures” were taken to persecute him inside his own country and to see that he was discredited abroad in the western press.

If the Holodomor numbers were incredible they only make the toll of the war even that more spectacularly unbelievable, obscene and unimaginable to a mind not yet gone mad or supra-rational in the sterile calculation of numbers and statistics. But these were not rational times and the accounting remained contentious and inconclusive. The powers imposed greater censorship as the killing went on. True figures were never reported to the outside world nor to the Russian people even to this day.

Struggle and persistence is usually rewarding. Like Dostoyevsky to be exiled and imprisoned and forced to write in secret can produce great work. “To plunge underground”, writes Solzhenitsyn, “to make it your concern not to win the world’s recognition,– Heaven forbid!– but on the contrary to shun it: this variant of the writer’s lot is peculiarly our own, purely Russian, Russian and Soviet!” (C. Andrew and V. Mitrokhin, 10-1)

In his 1998 essay “Genocide in Ukraine 1933”, senior Canadian documentalist was disturbed and puzzled by what he found in the undeniable causal proximity of the extermination campaigns between Stalin and Hitler and, in particular, targeting Ukrainians. Stalin became the teacher of Hitler. We can only speculate what might have happened if Stalin’s secret Genocide by famine had been fully exposed to the world. Would Hitler’s terrible secretive Holocaust of 6,000,000 Jews been possible?

We also know”, Andrew Gregorovich observes, “that Hitler in World War II adopted Stalin’s famine weapon and starved millions of Soviet prisoners of war including many Ukrainians. Aided by his incisive scrutiny Andrew Gregorovich cites figures by Dr. Wolodynmry Kosyk (The Third Reich and Ukraine, 1993) as high as 2.5 million military and 4.5 million civilian deaths resulting in “a total loss of 7 million for Ukraine compared to a total German loss of 6.5 million”. Losses by other countries in World War II include Poland, more than 5 million, Japan 2.36 million, Yugoslavia 1.7 million, France 600,000, Italy 500,000, Romania 500,000, Greece 450,000, Hungary 430,000, Great Britain 350,000, Czechoslovakia 340,000, Austria 374,000, USA 300,000, Holland 210,000, Belgium 88,000 and Canada 42,000. Byelorussia lost 2,198,000 civilians. The Russian SFSR, or Russia, he states “lost 1,781,000 civilians and about 3 to 4 million military or about 5 to 6 million total according to Kosyk.” (George Orwell, Tribune, 31 March 1944, M. Hastings, “Victims”, in Inferno, 499; A. Gregorovich, reprinted from Forum Ukrainian Review No. 92, Spring 1995; A. Gregorovich, address, “Genocide in Ukraine 1933, Town Hall, Hamilton, Ontario, Nov. 14, 1998)

That’s not the worst of it. In many Ukrainian villages the eager Nazi exterminators ordered all the men, women and children into the local church, sealed it and burned them alive. Academician Yuri Kondufor, Director of the Institute of History, Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, in Kiev, revealed figures in 1984 of precise statistics of Ukrainian population losses in World War II. Kondufor calculated, according to Gregorovich, “that there was a total loss of 7.5 million (7,509,045) including the dead and those taken as slave laborers to Germany. The German occupation and World War II resulted in the extermination and death in Ukraine of 3,898,457 civilians and 1,366,588 military and prisoners-of-war for a total of 5,265,045.” These figures loom over the shadow of the Holodomor victims to which they were all doomed. (A. Gregorovich, Forum No. 61, reprinted from Forum Ukrainian Review, No. 92, Spring 1995).

This is an essential history not to be overlooked in the story of the Holodomor and its aftermath. The number of villages in the Ukraine destroyed by Stalin and his squads of executioners during the Holodomor extermination was surpassed by Hitler and his Wehrmacht.

Canadian researcher of Ukrainian ancestry Andrew Gregorovich of the Toronto-based Ukrainian Canadian Research and Documentation Center (UCRD) writes, “In the space of about three years Ukraine suffered devastation from the scorched earth policy of two cruel totalitarian governments. He points to figures in Soviet Ukrainethat “the retreating Germans “razed and burned over 28,000 villages and 714 cities and towns, leaving 10,000,000 people without shelter. More than 16,000 industrial enterprises, more than 200,000 industrial production sites, 27,910 collective and 872 state farms, 1,300 machine and tractor stations, and 32,930 general schools, vocational secondary schools and higher educational institutions of Ukraine had been destroyed. The direct damage to the Ukrainian national economy caused by the fascist (Nazi German) occupation came to 285,000,000,000 rubles …”

Gregorovich found material losses for Ukraine amounted to “about $60,000,000,000 prewar dollars for Ukraine or trillions of dollars today”. No wonder Premier Nikita Khrushchev rebuffed Averell Harriman over a paltry $11 billion Lend-Lease bill when the freedom of the western world was in hock to the Russians to a degree far greater. But by then the world had changed and the Soviet-Russian war debt would be renegotiated under new agreements for the postwar New World Order economy. In due course in Moscow during the Kennedy administration after arduous negotiations Khrushchev invites Harriman into the Kremlin for dinner to celebrate their agreement with Britain for a limited nuclear test ban treaty July 1963. As they walked past the Old Palace formerly Stalin’s gloomy fortress and now a public park.

Schlesinger tells the story in A Thousand Days:“Harriman remarked that he saw few security men around. ‘I don’t like being surrounded by security men,’ Khrushchev said. ‘In Stalin’s time we never knew whether they were protecting us or watching us’.” Then Khrushchev turned towards the public crowd, and joked, “This is Gospodin Garriman. We’ve just signed a test-ban treaty. I’m going to take him to dinner. Do you think he’s earned his dinner’.” (A. Gregorovich, Soviet Ukraine, 155; Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., A Thousand Days, John F. Kennedy in the White House, Cambridge, MA.: Riverside Press-Houghton Mifflin, 908-9; italics added.)

Nikita Khrushchev wasn’t the only one who thought he didn’t have to pay back the Americans for Lend-Lease. With England shouldering the burden with Soviet Russia, and France already down and out, defeated and under Nazi occupation, “the British strenuously resisted” what they considered Roosevelt’s gracious and friendly high-handedness. The fact that the Americans stayed out of the war while Britain had to fight Nazi fascism virtually alone, did not improve Anglo-American relations and certainly strained it within the Consortium’s own ranks where the British exerted their individual means of persuasion.

Former Moscow AP correspondent Lynne Olson writes in her book, Citizens of London, (2010) of the pros and cons in the aid deal that preceded US entry into the war and official alliance as a disinterested Ally: “In the summer of 1941, the Roosevelt administration proposed that, as a payback for Lend-Lease, the British agree to end its imperial preference system. … Although a staunch imperialist, Churchill did not much like the imperial preference system. But he and his cabinet were vehemently opposed to the idea of being coerced into agreeing to a postwar economic order that favored the United States. Indeed, they wondered, why was there any need for a Lend-Lease payback at all?” Indeed, with good reason, and, as Olson adds, “In February 1942, Churchill raised that point in an irate cable to Roosevelt that was never sent: ‘It must be remembered that for a large part of 27 months we carried on the struggle single-handed… Had we failed, the full malice of the Axis Powers … would have fallen upon the United States.’ In a cable that was dispatched to the president, Churchill noted that the British cabinet had already decided the issue. It voted against swapping imperial preference for Lend-Lease, feeling that, if Britain did so, ‘we should have accepted an intervention in the domestic affairs of the British Empire’.” (Lynne Olson, Citizens of London, The Americans Who Stood with Britain in its Darkest, Finest Hour, Random House, 2010, 299-300)

War historian Max Hastings hasn’t much to say about Lend-Lease given the delay of Americans to get into the war while England struggles and millions of Russians are left to fight Hitler’s military machine alone on the continent. “American supplies made a critical contribution,” Hasting writes, and he adds, It was often suggested in Washington and London that the Soviets were ungrateful. Stalin might have given the contemptuous response he once gave to Zinoviev, who made the same charge; ‘Gratitude? Gratitude is a dog’s disease!’” Hastings adds, “Churchill observed, with justice, that Britain entered the war in 1939 as a matter of principle, and fought alone for almost two years, while Russia was content to play vulture on the carcasses of Hitler’s kills until Germany invaded the Soviet Union. It was impossible to dispute, however, that Stalin’s people were overwhelmingly responsible for destroying Hitler’s armies.” (M. Hastings, Armageddon, NY: Knopf, 2004, 114)

Gregorovich goes on to declare in reference to Professor Kondufor as “there were also 2,244,000 Ukrainian citizens taken to Germany for slave labor in the German war industry. Most of these probably perished in Allied bombing raids. According to these statistics provided by Prof. Kondufor, Ukraine’s total World War II loss was 7.5 million. To this should be added the loss of 250,159 in Carpatho-Ukraine and Crimea giving a total of 5,515,204 dead according to Kosyk or 7,759,204 total lost including Zakarpatia and Crimea. This includes about 600,000 Ukrainian Jews. Kondufor’s statistics, perhaps the most accurate of all, probably cover the period from June 1941 rather than September 1939.” (A. Gregorovich, Forum Ukrainian Review, No. 92, Spring 1995)

Gregorovich also noted a particular reference quoting from the Encyclopedia of Ukraine: “An estimated 6.8 million Ukrainians were killed. … About 200,000 Ukrainian displaced persons (DPs) ended up in the emigration to the West; the vast majority were returned to Soviet rule through forced repatriation.” He adds, “Bohdan Krawchenko states that, ‘In the course of the conflict 6.8 million people were killed, of whom 600,000 were Jews and 1.4 million were military personnel who either perished at the front or died as prisoners of war (POWs)’.” (Y. Boshyk, Ukraine during World War II, 15; Encyclopedia of Ukraine, Univ. of Toronto Press, v. 5, 727)

Toronto-based historian Orest Subtelny observes in his Ukraine, A History (1994), “Even a cursory listing of losses reflects the terrible impact that the Second World War had on Ukraine and its inhabitants. About 5.3 million, or one of six inhabitants of Ukraine, perished in the conflict. An additional 2.3 million had been shipped to Germany to perform forced labor.” Millions of captured Soviet soldiers and the Ukrainian population died there in the factories and death camps. (Orest Subtelny, Ukraine, A History, Univ. of Toronto Press, 1994, 479. italics added)

The official Soviet encyclopedia (1978) statistics state: “During this war over 20 million Soviet people were killed including many peaceful citizens. On the territory of Ukraine along the Hitlerites destroyed over 5 million people and more than 2 million people were carried off into slavery to Germany.” (Ukrainska Radyanska Entsyklopedia, Kyiv 1978, v. 2, 152 cited by A. Gregorovich)

For another perspective on the Soviet involvement in bringing about the end of Nazi Germany Gregorovich observes, “Even if we accept the conservative figure offered by Prof. Kondufor (during Soviet rule it should be mentioned), Ukraine’s loss of about 7.5 million people is greater than the total military loss of the USA, Canada, British Commonwealth, France, Germany and Italy all put together. According to the Encyclopedia Britannica the total military losses of these countries in World War II was 4,305,214. The statistics are: USA 292,100; British Commonwealth 544,596 (including 39,139 Canadians); France 210,671 (+107,847 civilians); Germany 2,850,000, and Italy 300,000. In conclusion it seems reasonable to estimate that because of the German occupation and the Soviet repression from 1939 to 1945 during World War II, that Ukraine lost about 10,000,000 citizens or one Ukrainian out of four.” (italics added)

The body count tells the story. “It is reasonably estimated that about 50 million people perished because of World War II which means 20 per cent of all the victims were Ukrainians; in this figure are about 600,000 Ukrainian Jews. In 1939, as Andrew Gregorovich observes, the Jewish population of Ukraine was 1.5 million (1,532,776) or 3% of the total population of Ukraine. When the War started on June 22, 1941 the Soviet Government first of all ordered the execution of all 19,000 Ukrainian political prisoners in western Ukraine (750,000 had already been killed or exiled to Siberia) and then the evacuation of 3.5 million key personnel to the east, to Russia. These evacuees included many Jews who were highly educated, and were scientists, skilled workers, Communist bureaucrats, and NKVD secret police. The total evacuated was estimated to be about one-half to two-thirds of the total Jewish population of Ukraine.” Would any of this have been possible had world leaders vigorously objected to the Holodomor Genocide? (italics added)

As the German Army swept east across Ukraine it included German Einsatzgruppen with 500 to 1,000 men which were special mobile killing squads ordered to carry out “The Final Solution” of killing all Jews. Ukraine had been the major part of the Jewish Pale of Settlement in the Russian Empire and in the 19th century probably had the most Jews of any country in the world. Within a few days of capturing Ukrainian cities like Lutsk, Zhitomir and Berdichev in the summer of 1941 thousands of Jews were killed. Most of these executions were carried out by the SS Standartfuehrer Paul Blobel who was the officer of the Sonderkommando 4A, Einsatzgruppe C. Only German personnel, no Ukrainians, were members of the Einsatzgruppe C and D which were assigned to Ukraine.” (Reitlinger 251 cited in A. Gregorovich online, “World War II in Ukraine: Jewish Holocaust in Ukraine, <www.infoukes.com/history/ww2/page-25.html> , Infoukes, Ontario, Canada )

From this historical perspective Ukrainian fatality figures for the two World Wars are astounding. In his essay “Ukraine’s Population Losses in World War II: 7.5 million or 13,614,000?”, Andrew Gregorovich makes it unmistakably clear that Ukraine lost more people in World War II than any other European country.

At the beginning of the war,” Gregorovich observes, “Ukraine’s population was 41.9 million. Let us review some of the estimates of losses from largest to smallest. According to A Short History of Ukraine published by the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences in Kiev in 1986, as a result of the Second World War: ‘The population (of Ukraine) contracted by 13,614,000.’ This statistic is not explained. In 1977 Stephan G. Prociuk estimated in a detailed analysis that Ukraine’s World War II loss of population was 11 million.” (Annals of the Ukrainian Academy of Arts and Sciences in the USSR, NY, 1977, v. 13 no. 23-50)

He goes on to tell us that “The American journalist Edgar Snow, who visits Ukraine in 1943 during the war, and at the end of the war in 1945, reported in his book The Pattern of Soviet Power (1945) that according to a high Ukrainian official ‘No fewer than 10,000,000 people had been lost to … Ukraine since 1941.’ This statistic excluded ‘men and women mobilized in the armed forces’. Yet it was not till I went on a sobering journey into this twilight of war that I fully realized the price which 40,000,000 Ukrainians paid for Soviet—and Allied—victory. The whole titanic struggle, which some are apt to dismiss as ‘the Russian glory’, was first of all a Ukrainian war. … I was told by a high Ukrainian official. That excluded men and women mobilized for the armed forces. A relatively small part of the Russian Soviet Republic itself was actually invaded, but the whole Ukraine, whose people were economically the most advanced and numerically the second largest in the Soviet Union, was devastated from the Carpathian frontier to the Donets and Don rivers, where Russia proper begins. No single European country suffered deeper wounds to its cities, its industry, its farmland and its humanity.” (A Short History of Ukraine, Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Kiev, 1986; Edgar Snow, The Pattern of Soviet Power, NY: Random House, 1945, 73; italics added.)

The Russian counter-offensive to Berlin left behind a country of decimated ruins. Gregorovich tells us his former homeland’s population had fallen “by 25 per cent – that is, by approximately 10.5 million people; 6.8 million had been killed or died of hunger or disease, and the remainder had been evacuated or deported to Soviet Asia as political prisoners or had ended up as slave laborers or emigrés in Hitler’s German,” states Ann Lencyk Pawliczko in Ukraine and Ukrainians Throughout the World (1994). Prof. Kubijovych, a geographer, says “the population of the Reichskommisariat Ukraine fell from 24,100,000 in 1939 to 16,900,000– a drop of 30 percent. The population of the larger cities dropped by 53 percent. … We may assume that in 1943 the population of the Ukrainian SSR in the current boundaries was about 30 million, that is, 10.5 million less than in 1939.” Trembitsky in Ukraine: A Concise Encyclopedia (1963) gives a total of war losses to Ukraine in 1941-45 of 8,545,000. (Za Vilnu Ukrainu, 24 serpnia, 1994 3; Ukrainian leader Volodymyr Shcherbitsky gives a “statistic” of 6,750,000 as Ukraine’s World War II losses. (Radyanska Ukraina, 18 October, 1974); Ann Lencyk Pawliczko in Ukraine and Ukrainians Throughout the World, Univ. of Toronto Press, 1994, 62;Trembitsky, Ukraine: A Concise Encyclopedia, Univ. of Toronto Press, 1963, v.1, 204)

Andrei Gogorovich states in his online essay “Koch vs Rosenberg”, that Nazi Reichskommissar Koch for the Ukraine “was ordered to provide 450,000 workers a year from Ukraine for German industry by “ruthless” means, according to Reitlinger. German documents said that the Ukrainian Ostarbeiter would be ‘worked to death.’ Although 40,000 Ukrainians a month were being sent to Germany as Ostarbeiter (slave laborers), Hitler’s young chief architect and armaments minister Albert Speer (1942-45) complained that his work force was dwindling. This would mean that more than 40,000 were dying every month. In one memorandum from Fritz Sauckel to Alfred Rosenberg there was a demand for one million men and women in four months at the rate of 10,000 a day and more than two-thirds were to come from Ukraine. In all the major Ukrainian cities the German army kidnapped young adults off the streets and shipped them to Germany as virtual slave laborers to work in the worst and most dangerous conditions. On the orders of the German administration Ukrainian cities were to be permanently depopulated by starvation and deportation. About three-quarters of the over 3,000,000 Ostarbeiter were Ukrainians. Prof. Kondufor’s statistic is that 2,244,000 Ukrainians were forced into slave labor in Germany during World War II. Another statistic cited by David Dallin (1961) put the total at 2,196,166 for Ukrainian Ostarbeiter slaves in Germany. Both of these statistics probably do not include the several hundreds of thousands of Galician Ukrainians, so a final total could be about 2.5 million.” (D. Dallin, 452, in A. Gregorovich; Ibid.)

There were slightly more women than men Ostarbeiter employed in agriculture, mining, manufacturing armaments, metal production and railroads,” Gregorovich writes. “For example, on September 3, 1942 Hitler demanded that half a million Ukrainian women be brought to Germany to free German women from housekeeping. Hitler thought there was a Germanic strain in Ukraine because the Ostro-Goths and Visi-Goths had lived in southern Ukraine 1,800 years earlier and the ‘chaste peasant virtues of Ukrainian women’ appealed to him. In the end only about 15,000 girls were taken to Germany to work as domestics. The other two million Ukrainians worked mostly in the armaments factories including the V-2 rocket factory at Peenemunde.”

At the end of the war some 120,000 Ukrainians registered themselves as displaced persons (DPs). Most Ukrainians who survived the war in Germany were forcibly repatriated to the USSR because of the Yalta agreement. Repatriation almost always meant death or exile in Siberia. General Koch served eight years in Polish prisons, avoided Soviet imprisonment. Never tried for his war crimes that occurred in the Ukraine he lived a free man in Poland until 1986, apparently at peace, tolerated and granted a ripe old age dying at 90. Americans never knew him or his horrors. (D. Dallin, “The Soviet Union, From Lenin to Khrushchev”, Washington DC, US Government Printing Office, House Document No. 139, 1961, 452)

The Nazi Germans were no less exacting in their killing as they were in the documentation of Stalin’s crimes. Gregorovich recounts, for example, how German experts excavated mass-killing by the Soviet NKVD secret police in Vinnytsia, a Ukrainian city 120 miles south-west of Kiev. In 1939 it had a population of about 100,000. On May 25, 1943 a German team of professors of forensic science and international experts started excavating three mass murder sites there of 1937 and 1938. The local population thought that about 20,000 people who had disappeared had probably been murdered there by the NKVD on orders from Moscow.

Once Germany invaded Stalin adopted extreme measures of internal counter-espionage and subversion of the Wehrmacht. Boris Levytsky writes, “The NKVD rendered inestimable service in the defense of the Soviet Union. Their fanaticism contributed decisively to raising the morale of the fighting forces. Still more valuable was their services to the armaments industry. … The NKVD was unique in its display of toughness, iron discipline, and loyalty to the regime.” Much of the responsibility of organization in the Caucasus fell to Beria and Kagonovich including State security services, intelligence, and espionage. The creation of Smersh, “the anti-espionage department of the People’s Commissariat of Defense, with the title of ‘Death to Spies’, in Russian Smerty Shpionam. This gave Stalin all he needed … . On each staff there was a Smersh office which de factor watched all officers. … The Smersh gradually became a weapon of offense,” Levytsky writes. Soon it handles “more and more political tasks.” It penetrates the partisans flushing out anti-communists and infiltrates the Gestapo. “At the end of 1942 the NKGB succeeded in activating the network of its secret agents in the areas occupied by Germany. Their task was trenchantly formulated by Stalin himself– ‘to make life behind the enemy lines intolerable for them’. Their agents infiltrated all the activities of the Gestapo and other authorities.” (B. Levytsky, “In the Front Line of the ‘Patriotic War’”, 156-75)

Procedures were systematically followed by the German investigators and carefully documented. Victims had their hands tied behind their backs and were shot in the back of the head. From May to October 1943 there were 9,432 corpses, including 169 women, found in three burial places. Of these 679 were identified from their documents and garments by relatives. The Soviet government had hidden the graves in a pear orchard and by building a Public Park on top of the mass graves with swings and playground equipment. (A. Gregorovich, “Vinnytsia”, on the web)

Gregorovich reminds us that “most of the executions in Ukraine were carried out by shooting the victims (because all the death camps like Auschwitz were in Poland) (although) some people were killed by hanging and others in trucks by gas.” The Ukrainian author Anatoly Kuznetsov writes: “On one occasion a gas-van arrived full of women. When the usual procedure was over and the shouting and banging had died down the door was opened. After the fumes had cleared, the van was seen to be packed full of naked girls. “There were more than a hundred of them, pressed tightly together, sitting on each other’s knees. They all had their hair done up in scarves, as women do when they take a bath. They had probably been told when they were put into the van that they were on their way to the baths. Many were found to have rings and watches, lipstick and other small things hidden in their headscarves. The drunken Germans hooted with laughter, explaining they were waitresses from the Kiev night-clubs … . When Davydov lifted them and laid them on the stack … still warm, the breath would come out of their mouths with a faint noise, and he got the impression again that they were alive but had simply lost consciousness. They were all burnt on the fire in Babyn Yar.” (Anatoly Kuznetsov, Babi Yar, NY: Penguin, 1982, 377-8; Kamenetsky; Zayas, 204, 240-4; A. Gregorovich, “Kiev Waitresses”, online)

For ill-fated Ukraine more horrific tragedy would follow the Holodomor as it escalates into a larger more terrible world catastrophe and realignment of world power. “The great puzzle is: Did Hitler or Stalin during WW II kill the most Ukrainians?”, Gregorovich asks hauntingly. Unfortunately, this is a most relevant question and no more absurd than the silence of the West to ignore it. And ever more so relevant today with Genocide currently inflicted on defenseless populations in various forms. His reply is no less creepy: “Hitler’s crimes in Ukraine have been better documented and are better known. Stalin said that history is written by the winners. As a victor over Nazi Germany Stalin’s USSR was able to hide its Genocide of Ukrainians. After the war Stalin conceded that 7 million Soviet citizens died but we know he concealed the real figures. Premier Nikita Khrushchev, in 1961, set the death toll in the USSR at 20 million and this seems to be an accurate accounting. More recently Moscow has set figures as high as 25 million; in Washington in 1990 Gorbachev declared 27 million dead but he may have included non-combat deaths as well. (F. Wilheilm Christians, Paths to Russia, from War to Peace, NY: Macmillan, 1990)

These latest figures are either sheer propaganda or estimates based on new information about Stalin’s Genocide of Ukrainians and other Soviet citizens during the War. Both Hitler and Stalin saw the Ukrainian nation as an obstacle to their plans and goals. Hitler wanted Ukraine as German Lebensraum (“Living space”) and Stalin feared that Ukrainian nationalism and an independent Ukraine would wreck the Soviet Russian Empire. Both were guilty of war crimes and Genocide in Ukraine on such a massive scale that they are virtually unequaled in history. We are not speaking here of thousands, or tens of thousands, or even hundreds of thousands of victims of mass murder. We are talking of millions of Ukrainians killed by both Hitler and Stalin.” Within that space of argument we are led back to Stalin’s mass-killing of the Holodomor Genocide.

Gregorovich then goes on to declare, “No documentary evidence exists of Hitler’s order to eliminate all Jews in Europe but we know this is true. Likewise, we have no Hitler order to annihilate the Ukrainians. But we do have the evidence: 1) Millions of civilian victims perished which could not be ‘accidental’; 2) Documentary evidence of the wholesale executions of Ukrainians; 3) The order to execute up to 100 innocent Ukrainians for one German soldier shot by the partisans (and 460,000 German soldiers were killed by partisans and guerillas); 4) The Ostarbeiter Ukrainian slaves were to be ‘worked to death’ in Germany; 5) Millions of prisoners of war were intentionally starved to death in concentration camps; 6) Ukrainian cities were starved to death according to plan; 7) Nazi leaders said that Ukraine as the Lebensraum of Nazi Germany would be colonized by German population and some Ukrainians would be used as slave labor.’” And we find Stalin’s written expressed dread of losing the Ukraine that would seriously weaken Russia and threaten Moscow’s control and post-imperial communist dominance.” (A. Gregorovich)

Hitler’s Final Solution applied to the extermination of the Ukrainians as well as Jews; and the destruction of everything Ukrainian. It was Hitler who ultimately was in charge of the Nazi Empire.” Of the 650 major legislative orders issued during the war”, Niall Ferguson observes, “all but 72 were decrees or orders issued in his name. It was Hitler who argued, shortly after the invasion of the Soviet Union, that ‘In view of the vast sie of the conquered territories in the east, the forces available for establishing security in these areas will be sufficient only if, instead of punishing resistance by sentences in a court of law, the occupying forces spread such terror as to crush every will to resist among the population’. It was Hitler whose preferred method for pacifying occupied territory was ‘shooting everyone who looked in any way suspicious’.” (N. Ferguson, Civilization, 194)

What about the other Ukrainians?” Gregorovich asks. “As late as 1943,” he observed, writing, “Hitler refused status to Ukraine and when Ukrainians offered to form an army against the USSR it had to be named Galicia Division until the very last few minutes of the war in 1945 when it was renamed the Ukrainian National Army”. Furthermore, Gregorovich reminds us, “Ukraine’s disproportionate civilian losses compared to military also indicates a special Nazi German campaign. It would be naive to think that Adolf Hitler and the Nazi German government was not bent on destroying as many Ukrainian Untermensch as possible in view of the statements which prove it. For example, Reichmarshal Göering, who was second to Hitler in power said: ‘This year between twenty and thirty million persons will die (in Ukraine) and Russia of hunger. Perhaps it is well that it should be so, for certain nations must be decimated’.” (Hermann Göering, Nov. 24-7, 1941, cited by A. Gregorovich, in D. Dallin, 123; italics added)